Internet machines

DéfinitionServer and clients

Clients, box et serveursInformations[1]

DéfinitionIn the middle : routers

Routers are computers that transport requests from client to server and back answer from server to client.

Exemple

Exemple de client accédant à wikipedia.org
Réseau avec deux clients et wikipedia.org comme extrémitésInformations[2]
  1. The client send its request to the router it is connected to (example : the box).

  2. If the router knows the server (example : it is in the same network), it delivers the message (the request).

  3. If not, it delivers the message to another router known to be nearer the server.

  4. The next router does the same.

  5. One last router finally knows the server and delivers the message.

  6. The same process is used for the answer.

Exempletraceroute

1
traceroute www.icann.org.
1
traceroute to www.icann.org. (192.0.32.7), 30 hops max, 60 byte packets
2
 1  * * *
3
 2  10.24.0.1 (10.24.0.1)  72.344 ms  72.283 ms  72.305 ms
4
 3  192.168.253.30 (192.168.253.30)  72.306 ms  72.302 ms  77.540 ms
5
 4  192.168.255.6 (192.168.255.6)  77.569 ms  77.566 ms  78.655 ms
6
 5  ppp18-metz.isdnet.net (194.149.166.145)  78.681 ms  80.408 ms  80.434 ms
7
 6  ppp6-metz.isdnet.net (194.149.166.133)  78.654 ms  38.479 ms  38.291 ms
8
 7  * * *
9
 8  be4204.ccr32.par04.atlas.cogentco.com (149.11.115.13)  42.493 ms  42.424 ms  42.369 ms
10
 9  be2067.ccr31.par04.atlas.cogentco.com (130.117.3.33)  41.388 ms  41.284 ms  41.180 ms
11
10  ae-29.r04.parsfr01.fr.bb.gin.ntt.net (129.250.8.125)  39.545 ms  39.478 ms  39.708 ms
12
11  ae-23.r24.amstnl02.nl.bb.gin.ntt.net (129.250.4.137)  49.371 ms  40.029 ms  42.071 ms
13
12  ae-3.r25.amstnl02.nl.bb.gin.ntt.net (129.250.4.69)  39.909 ms  46.701 ms  49.333 ms
14
13  ae-5.r23.asbnva02.us.bb.gin.ntt.net (129.250.6.162)  139.280 ms  145.858 ms  140.580 ms
15
14  ae-0.r22.asbnva02.us.bb.gin.ntt.net (129.250.3.84)  126.531 ms  123.791 ms  115.589 ms
16
15  ae-5.r23.lsanca07.us.bb.gin.ntt.net (129.250.3.189)  185.790 ms  177.418 ms  183.428 ms
17
16  ae-5.r01.lsanca20.us.bb.gin.ntt.net (129.250.6.49)  180.727 ms  204.185 ms  201.918 ms
18
17  ge-100-0-0-16.r01.lsanca20.us.ce.gin.ntt.net (204.1.254.150)  199.037 ms  186.855 ms  185.762 ms
19
18  www.icann.org (192.0.32.7)  187.313 ms  239.217 ms  232.851 ms
20
traceroute www.icann.org. depuis la FranceInformations[3]
Stéphane Crozat, Youssef El Saadany, Quentin Duchemin Paternité - Partage des Conditions Initiales à l'Identique